Music Theory Cheat Sheet: Keys, Scales, Chords, Notes & Intervals

    ✨🎵✨ An interactive music theory cheat sheet to get all you need at a glance: keys, scales, modes, notes, chords and intervals.

    Just select a major or minor key and you'll get the notes of the scale, scale formula, the relative major or minor, modal scales for that key, scale degrees/intervals, the key signature, the diatonic chords, the diatonic 7th chords, the chord functions and the relationship with other keys on the Circle of Fifths (aka circle of fourth, when going counter-clockwise).

    → For more reference on chords and scales, you may like this scale formula chart, chord formula chart and this list of chords.

    key:
    • C♯
      D♭
    • D
    • D♯
      E♭
    • E
    • F
    • F♯
      G♭
    • G
    • G♯
      A♭
    • A
    • A♯
      B♭
    • B
    • C♯
      D♭
    • D
    • D♯
      E♭
    • E
    • F
    • F♯
      G♭
    • G
    • G♯
      A♭
    • A
    • A♯
      B♭
    • B

    C Major

    C Major Scale

    formula: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    steps: whole whole half whole whole whole half whole half whole whole half whole whole

    relative minor → A Minor

    C Harmonic Minor Scale

    formula: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    C Melodic Minor Scale

    formula: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    relative major → A Major


    Modes of the Major Scale


    C Major Pentatonic Scale

    formula: 1 2 3   5 6  

    C Major Blues Scale

    formula: 1 2 3 3 5   6  

    C Minor Pentatonic Scale

    formula: 1   3 4 5   7

    C Minor Blues Scale

    formula: 1   3 4 5 5   7

    C Major Scale Degrees & Intervals

    • 1- Tonic: C → Unison
    • 2- Supertonic: D → Major 2nd
    • 3- Mediant: E Major 3rd
    • 4- Subdominant: F → Perfect 4th
    • 5- Dominant: G → Perfect 5th
    • 6- Submediant: A Major 6th
    • 7- Leading Tone: B Major 7th
    • 8/1- Octave/Tonic: C → Perfect 8th

    C Major Key Signature & Notation

    Theoretical Scale

    The scale is a theoretical scale that contains double accidentals. For this reason, that scale is not used often. The enharmonic equivalent scale is used instead most of the time.


    C Major Diatonic Chords

    I ii iii IV V vi vii°
    C
    C E G
    Dm
    D F A
    Em
    E G B
    F

    G

    Am



    C Major Diatonic 7th Chords

    IM7 iim7 iiim7 IVM7 V7 vim7 viiø7
    C
    C E G B
    Dm7
    D F A C
    Em
    E G B D
    F
    F A C E
    G

    Am7

    Bø7

    In functional harmony for a major key:
    • the tonic chords are chords I, iii & vi
    • the subdominant chords are chords IV & ii
    • the dominant chords are chords V & vii°
    i ii° III iv v VI VII
    C
    C Eb G

    D F Ab
    Eb
    Eb G Bb
    Fm

    Gm

    A

    B

    C Natural Minor Diatonic 7th Chords

    im7 iiø7 IIIM7 ivm7 vm7 VIM7 vii7
    C
    C Eb G Bb
    Dm7
    D F Ab C
    Em
    E G B D
    F
    F A C E
    G

    AM7

    B7

    In functional harmony for a minor key:
    • the tonic chords are chords i & III
    • the subdominant chords are chords iv, VI & ii°
    • the dominant chords are chords V, v, VII & vii°

    The harmonic minor scale has a raised 7th scale degree compared to the natural minor scale, which makes that 7th scale degree into a leading tone and makes the V chord a major chord. In functional harmony, that V chord from the harmonic minor scale is used most often because the leading tone gives a stronger sense of wanting to be resolved to the tonic.


    C Major on the Circle of Fifths


    Common C Chords

    click to hear the different chords


    Order of sharps

    F C G D A E B

    Order of flats

    B E A D G C F

    Chromatic Scale

    C-D-D-E-E-F-G-G-A-A-B-B
    alternative enharmonic spelling:
    C-C-D-D-E-F-F-G-G-A-A-B

    Solfège syllables

    Do Re Mi Fa So(l) La Ti Do

    Accidentals

    Double Sharp: 𝄪
    Sharp:
    Natural:
    Flat:
    Double Flat: ♭♭

    Chord Symbols

    Major: M, maj, △
    Minor: m, min, -
    Dominant 7th: 7, dom7
    Diminished: dim, °
    Half-diminished: m7b5, ø
    Augmented: aug, +


    I hope this music theory cheat sheet is useful! 😎

    You can get in touch with me here if you think I should add something else to this page.


    piano samples

    The piano samples used for this music theory cheat sheet are from “ Salamander Grand Piano V3 ” by Alexander Holm, licensed under CC BY 3.0.

    Circle of fifths with major and minor keys adgcfebDAEBGCF mini circle of fifths